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ZLD TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LTD.
G77, Ground floor
Eternity Commercial Premises
LBS Marg, Near Teen Haath Naka
Thane West-400604
Thane, Maharashtra, India

Phone: +91-22-49749057
            +91 - 9860024649
E-mail:




ZLD TECHNOLOGIES PVT. LTD.
42, 32, 26 - 3rd & 4th Floor
B Wing, 4 D Square
Visat-Gandhinagar Highway
Chandkheda, Motera - 380005
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Phone: +91-79-48903459
            +91 - 9904407783
E-mail:


Evaporation Technologies

Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle. The sun drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water. In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor; this vapor can then rise up and form clouds. The tracking of evaporation from its source on the surface of the earth, through the atmosphere as vapor or clouds, and to its fate as precipitation closes the atmospheric water cycle, and embodies the concept of the precipitation shed.


Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance. The other type of vaporization is boiling, which is characterized by bubbles of saturated vapor forming in the liquid phase. Steam produced in a boiler is another example of evaporation occurring in a saturated vapor phase. Evaporation that occurs directly from the solid phase below the melting point, as commonly observed with ice at or below freezing or moth crystals is called sublimation.


On average, a fraction of the molecules in a glass of water have enough heat energy to escape from the liquid. Water molecules from the air enter the water in the glass, but as long as the relative humidity of the air in contact is less than 100% , the net transfer of water molecules will be to the air. The water in the glass will be cooled by the evaporation until an equilibrium is reached where the air supplies the amount of heat removed by the evaporating water. In an enclosed environment the water would evaporate until the air is saturated.


With sufficient temperature, the liquid would turn into vapor quickly. When the molecules collide, they transfer energy to each other in varying degrees, based on how they collide. Sometimes the transfer is so one-sided for a molecule near the surface that it ends up with enough energy to 'escape'.


Multi Effect Evaporator (MEE)

A multiple-effect evaporator, as defined in chemical engineering, is an apparatus for efficiently using the heat from steam to evaporate water. In a multiple-effect evaporator, water is boiled in a sequence of vessels, each held at a lower pressure than the last. Because the boiling temperature of water decreases as pressure decreases, the vapor boiled off in one vessel can be used to heat the next, and only the first vessel (at the highest pressure) requires an external source of heat. While in theory, evaporators may be built with an arbitrarily large number of stages, evaporators with more than four stages are rarely practical except in systems where the liquor is the desired product such as in chemical recovery systems where up to seven effects are used.


Mechanical Vapor recompression (MVR)

Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) is an energy recovery process. It involves taking vapor (usually water vapor) at or a little above, atmospheric pressure and adding energy to it by compression. The result is a smaller volume of vapor, at a higher temperature and pressure, which can be used to do useful work.


Multi Effect Distillation (MED)

Multiple-effect distillation (MED) is a distillation process often used for sea water desalination. It consists of multiple stages or "effects". In each stage the feed water is heated by steam in tubes. Some of the water evaporates, and this steam flows into the tubes of the next stage, heating and evaporating more water. Each stage essentially reuses the energy from the previous stage. The tubes can be submerged in the feed water, but more typically the feed water is sprayed on the top of a bank of horizontal tubes, and then drips from tube to tube until it is collected at the bottom of the stage.


Dryers and Crystallizers

After certain level of concentration, it needs to segregate salt / solids by evaporative method or adiabatic cooling crystallization can be achieved and salts can be dewatered using a centrifuge. There are certain effluents which do not crystallize the inorganic salts and are difficult to dewater. Dryers are used in such cases to bring out the salt from the system.




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